atom, electron, neutron @ Pixabay

An ionic bond is formed when one atom donates an electron to another. The atom that has lost the electron becomes a positively charged ion and the other atom, which has gained an electron, becomes a negatively charged ion. The type of bond formed depends on the elements involved, and what is called its valence. Valences range from zero to four for most atoms. When an atom has a -0- or +0+ valence it can only form one kind of covalent bond with other atoms that have similar charges (e.g., hydrogen forms single bonds). Atoms with higher numbers (-valences) are capable of forming more than one type of covalent bond by sharing some electrons while keeping others close in their outer orbits (i.e., ionic bonds). A few examples include: • NaCl: sodium ions lose an electron so they become positively charged (+), while chlorine ions gain an electron and become negatively


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